Не має часу перекласти текст допоможіть The term ‘culture’ can be defi ned as language, dress, beliefs, manners and tastes in food or music of a particular2 group. The concep

Не має часу перекласти текст допоможіть The term ‘culture’ can be defi ned as language, dress, beliefs, manners and tastes in food or music of a particular2 group. The concep
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of youth culture
appeared in America in the 1950s and
spread to Britain in the 1960s. It was
a result of the improvement in
Western economics, which meant
that teenagers had money to spend.
There was the development of
music and fashion industries with the
orientation to the youth market. New
groups of young people dressed in
Italian-style and leather4
appeared. They were called Mods.
But there were young people who
were against the materialistic wealth
and stressed on spiritual5
They tried to show their protest in
wearing unusual clothes, hair dress
or in other ways. Thus in the 1960sand 1970s Hippies appeared.
These young people usually had
long hair and wore second-hand
clothes. They liked to say, ‘Make
love, not war.’ Hippies were
against the Vietnam War and
showed their peaceful feelings in
their rock songs. Some of them
are still popular — ‘Give Peace a
Chance’ and ‘All You Need is
In the mid 1970s punk rock
appeared. Punks were not peace
loving, but full of hate. There
was a great unemployment
(especially among young people)
at that time. Many teenagers
the society and in punk
movement they expressed their
negative feelings. Punks often
had brightly coloured hair and
wore clothes that could shock
people. Later these movements
infl uenced some other aspects of
life. For example, Punk became a
clothes design style and punk
magazines ‘fanzines’, fan clubs,
posters appeared.
As a large number of teens
today watch music videos, these
infl uence their minds. Teens
watch cool Rappers, who look
and sound unusual and they want
a piece of that image. They wear the
same clothes, sing violent lyrics and
feel very cool.
Rap and hip-hop were born in the
of New York over 30 years
ago. Rap fashion is big business today.
The clothes, sometimes very expensive
from Prada and Gucci, Ralph Lauren
and Polo, express a lack2
of respect for
tradition and authority3
. Rappers wear
huge gold necklaces and drive costly
cars. There is also a rap language or
rather a slang, used by many teens.
Such artists as Justin Timberlake and
Eminem use it in their songs. Many
rap songs make teenagers believe that
money is the most important thing in
the world.
An analysis of different youth
cultures which have appeared and
infl uenced each other helps to make
the following conclusions. Here they are.
z Youth cultures are formed in reaction to society’s values.
z Youth cultures help young people become independent of
their families.
z They are consumer products sold to the young.
z These cultures give young people the opportunity to be
something different before they agree and accept
society’s values.
z Youth cultures enable young people to express
themselves by choosing the style that suits them.
z The values of a youth culture do not matter4
— just haveto be different from those of the
older generation.
Are they good or bad? No one can say. But it’s quite clear
that youth cultures can bring change to a society and help young
people in their search for identity1
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